Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market Research Report 2021

  • Published Date : 10-08-2021
  • Pages : 111
  • Report Id : 47105
  • Categories : Automotive

This report studies the global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle market status and forecast, categorizes the global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, China, Japan, South Korea, India and other regions (Southeast Asia, Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa)

The global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle market is valued at million US$ in 2020 and will reach million US$ by the end of 2027, growing at a CAGR of during 2021-2027.

The major manufacturers covered in this report
AIMA
Yadea
Sunra
BYVIN
TAILG
Lvyuan
Incalcu
Lvjia
Lima
Supaq
Bodo
Slane
OPAI
Xiaodao Ebike
Birdie Electric
Gamma
Mingjia
Qianxi Vehicle
Zuboo
Lvneng
Sinski
Aucma EV
Giant EV
Palla
Forever
Emmelle
Yamaha
Lvju
Songi
Hero Electric

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
United States
EU
China
Japan
South Korea
India

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Electric Bicycle
Electric Scooter
Electric Motorcycle
On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including
<14 yrs
14-35 yrs
36-60 yrs
>60 yrs

The study objectives of this report are:
To analyze and study the global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2016-2020) and forecast (2021-2027);
Focuses on the key Electric Scooter and Motorcycle manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Electric Scooter and Motorcycle are as follows:
History Year: 2016-2020
Base Year: 2020
Estimated Year: 2021
Forecast Year 2021 to 2027

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2020 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

Key Stakeholders
Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Manufacturers
Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Available Customizations
With the given market data, offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Electric Scooter and Motorcycle market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.
End of Summary


Table of Contents

Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market Research Report 2021
1 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Electric Scooter and Motorcycle
1.2 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Segment by Type (Product Category)
1.2.1 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production and CAGR (%) Comparison by Type (Product Category)(2016-2027)
1.2.2 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2017
1.2.3 Electric Bicycle
1.2.4 Electric Scooter
1.2.5 Electric Motorcycle
1.3 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Segment by Application
1.3.1 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Consumption (Sales) Comparison by Application (2016-2027)
1.3.2 <14 yrs
1.3.3 14-35 yrs
1.3.4 36-60 yrs
1.3.5 >60 yrs
1.4 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market by Region (2016-2027)
1.4.1 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market Size (Value) and CAGR (%) Comparison by Region (2016-2027)
1.4.2 United States Status and Prospect (2016-2027)
1.4.3 EU Status and Prospect (2016-2027)
1.4.4 China Status and Prospect (2016-2027)
1.4.5 Japan Status and Prospect (2016-2027)
1.4.6 South Korea Status and Prospect (2016-2027)
1.4.7 India Status and Prospect (2016-2027)
1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of Electric Scooter and Motorcycle (2016-2027)
1.5.1 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue Status and Outlook (2016-2027)
1.5.2 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production Status and Outlook (2016-2027)

2 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market Competition by Manufacturers
2.1 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production and Share by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
2.1.1 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity and Share by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
2.1.2 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production and Share by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
2.2 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
2.3 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Average Price by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
2.4 Manufacturers Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area and Product Type
2.5 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.5.1 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market Concentration Rate
2.5.2 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 Manufacturers
2.5.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion

3 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2016-2021)
3.1 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity and Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
3.2 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production and Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
3.3 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue (Value) and Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
3.4 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.5 United States Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.6 EU Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.7 China Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.8 Japan Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.9 South Korea Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.10 India Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

4 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Region (2016-2021)
4.1 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Consumption by Region (2016-2021)
4.2 United States Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2016-2021)
4.3 EU Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2016-2021)
4.4 China Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2016-2021)
4.5 Japan Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2016-2021)
4.6 South Korea Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2016-2021)
4.7 India Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2016-2021)

5 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type
5.1 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production and Market Share by Type (2016-2021)
5.2 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue and Market Share by Type (2016-2021)
5.3 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Price by Type (2016-2021)
5.4 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production Growth by Type (2016-2021)

6 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market Analysis by Application
6.1 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Consumption and Market Share by Application (2016-2021)
6.2 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Consumption Growth Rate by Application (2016-2021)
6.3 Market Drivers and Opportunities
6.3.1 Potential Applications
6.3.2 Emerging Markets/Countries

7 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis
7.1 AIMA
7.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.1.2 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Product Category, Application and Specification
7.1.2.1 Product A
7.1.2.2 Product B
7.1.3 AIMA Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.2 Yadea
7.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.2.2 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Product Category, Application and Specification
7.2.2.1 Product A
7.2.2.2 Product B
7.2.3 Yadea Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.3 Sunra
7.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.3.2 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Product Category, Application and Specification
7.3.2.1 Product A
7.3.2.2 Product B
7.3.3 Sunra Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.4 BYVIN
7.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.4.2 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Product Category, Application and Specification
7.4.2.1 Product A
7.4.2.2 Product B
7.4.3 BYVIN Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.5 TAILG
7.5.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.5.2 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Product Category, Application and Specification
7.5.2.1 Product A
7.5.2.2 Product B
7.5.3 TAILG Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2021)
7.5.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.6 Lvyuan
7.6.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.6.2 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Product Category, Application and Specification
7.6.2.1 Product A
7.6.2.2 Product B
7.6.3 Lvyuan Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.6.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.7 Incalcu
7.7.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.7.2 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Product Category, Application and Specification
7.7.2.1 Product A
7.7.2.2 Product B
7.7.3 Incalcu Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.7.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.8 Lvjia
7.8.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.8.2 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Product Category, Application and Specification
7.8.2.1 Product A
7.8.2.2 Product B
7.8.3 Lvjia Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.8.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.9 Lima
7.9.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.9.2 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Product Category, Application and Specification
7.9.2.1 Product A
7.9.2.2 Product B
7.9.3 Lima Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.9.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.8 Supaq
7.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.10.2 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Product Category, Application and Specification
7.10.2.1 Product A
7.10.2.2 Product B
7.10.3 Supaq Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
7.10.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.11 Bodo
7.12 Slane
7.13 OPAI
7.14 Xiaodao Ebike
7.15 Birdie Electric
7.16 Gamma
7.17 Mingjia
7.18 Qianxi Vehicle
7.19 Zuboo
7.20 Lvneng
7.21 Sinski
7.22 Aucma EV
7.23 Giant EV
7.24 Palla
7.25 Forever
7.26 Emmelle
7.27 Yamaha
7.28 Lvju
7.29 Songi
7.30 Hero Electric

8 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Manufacturing Cost Analysis
8.1 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Key Raw Materials Analysis
8.1.1 Key Raw Materials
8.1.2 Price Trend of Key Raw Materials
8.1.3 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
8.1.4 Market Concentration Rate of Raw Materials
8.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
8.2.1 Raw Materials
8.2.2 Labor Cost
8.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses
8.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Electric Scooter and Motorcycle

9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
9.1 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Industrial Chain Analysis
9.2 Upstream Raw Materials Sourcing
9.3 Raw Materials Sources of Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Major Manufacturers in 2017
9.4 Downstream Buyers

10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders
10.1 Marketing Channel
10.1.1 Direct Marketing
10.1.2 Indirect Marketing
10.1.3 Marketing Channel Development Trend
10.2 Market Positioning
10.2.1 Pricing Strategy
10.2.2 Brand Strategy
10.2.3 Target Client
10.3 Distributors/Traders List

11 Market Effect Factors Analysis
11.1 Technology Progress/Risk
11.1.1 Substitutes Threat
11.1.2 Technology Progress in Related Industry
11.2 Consumer Needs/Customer Preference Change
11.3 Economic/Political Environmental Change

12 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market Forecast (2021-2027)
12.1 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2027)
12.1.1 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production and Growth Rate Forecast (2021-2027)
12.1.2 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue and Growth Rate Forecast (2021-2027)
12.1.3 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Price and Trend Forecast (2021-2027)
12.2 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Consumption , Import and Export Forecast by Region (2021-2027)
12.2.1 United States Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2021-2027)
12.2.2 EU Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2021-2027)
12.2.3 China Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2021-2027)
12.2.4 Japan Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2021-2027)
12.2.5 South Korea Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2021-2027)
12.2.6 India Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2021-2027)
12.3 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production, Revenue and Price Forecast by Type (2021-2027)
12.4 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Consumption Forecast by Application (2021-2027)

13 Research Findings and Conclusion

14 Appendix
14.1 Methodology/Research Approach
14.1.1 Research Programs/Design
14.1.2 Market Size Estimation
14.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
14.2 Data Source
14.2.1 Secondary Sources
14.2.2 Primary Sources
14.3 Disclaimer
List of Tables and Figures

Figure Picture of Electric Scooter and Motorcycle
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production () and CAGR (%) Comparison by Types (Product Category) (2016-2027)
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production Market Share by Types (Product Category) in 2017
Figure Product Picture of Electric Bicycle
Table Major Manufacturers of Electric Bicycle
Figure Product Picture of Electric Scooter
Table Major Manufacturers of Electric Scooter
Figure Product Picture of Electric Motorcycle
Table Major Manufacturers of Electric Motorcycle
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Consumption (K Units) by Applications (2016-2027)
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Consumption Market Share by Applications in 2017
Figure <14 yrs Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in <14 yrs
Figure 14-35 yrs Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in 14-35 yrs
Figure 36-60 yrs Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in 36-60 yrs
Figure >60 yrs Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in >60 yrs
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market Size (Million USD), Comparison (K Units) and CAGR (%) by Regions (2016-2027)
Figure United States Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2016-2027)
Figure EU Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2016-2027)
Figure China Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2016-2027)
Figure Japan Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2016-2027)
Figure South Korea Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2016-2027)
Figure India Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2016-2027)
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue (Million USD) Status and Outlook (2016-2027)
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production (K Units) Status and Outlook (2016-2027)
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Major Players Product Capacity (K Units) (2016-2021)
Table Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity (K Units) of Key Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Table Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity Market Share of Key Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity (K Units) of Key Manufacturers in 2017
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity (K Units) of Key Manufacturers in 2021
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Major Players Product Production (K Units) (2016-2021)
Table Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production (K Units) of Key Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Table Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production Share by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Figure 2017 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production Share by Manufacturers
Figure 2017 Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production Share by Manufacturers
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Major Players Product Revenue (Million USD) (2016-2021)
Table Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue (Million USD) by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Table Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Table 2017 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue Share by Manufacturers
Table 2021 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue Share by Manufacturers
Table Global Market Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Average Price (USD/Unit) of Key Manufacturers (2016-2021)
Figure Global Market Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Average Price (USD/Unit) of Key Manufacturers in 2017
Table Manufacturers Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Manufacturing Base Distribution and Sales Area
Table Manufacturers Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Product Category
Figure Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market Share of Top 3 Manufacturers
Figure Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Market Share of Top 5 Manufacturers
Table Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity (K Units) by Region (2016-2021)
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
Figure 2017 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity Market Share by Region
Table Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production by Region (2016-2021)
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production (K Units) by Region (2016-2021)
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
Figure 2017 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Production Market Share by Region
Table Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue (Million USD) by Region (2016-2021)
Table Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
Table 2017 Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Revenue Market Share by Region
Figure Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production (K Units) and Growth Rate (2016-2021)
Table Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
Table United States Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
Table EU Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
Table China Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
Table Japan Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
Table South Korea Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
Table India Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Capacity, Production (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
Table Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Consumption (K Units) Market by Region (2016-2021)
Table Global Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Consumption Market Share by Region (2016-2021)
Figure Global Electric Scooter

Direct Purchase
Your perfect start with Research Allied


Want to customize this report?

This report can be customized according to your requirements. Our analysts and industry experts will work directly with you to understand your requirements and provide you with customized data in a short amount of time.

We offer $1000 worth of FREE customization at the time of purchase.
RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo RA client logo

Research Allied Copyright © 2022 .